GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Molecular Representations

Molecules can be drawn using a variety of different styles. It is important to be able to understand the different styles, as they are likely to show up in the GAMSAT exam.

Lewis structures are useful as they clearly show all atoms and bonds in the molecule. Each bond represents the sharing of two electrons between respective atoms.

Partially condensed structures do not show the bonds between C and H. Atoms are drawn beside each other. Three hydrogens bonded to carbon are shown as a methyl group (CH3).

Condensed structures do not show any single bonds. The structural arrangement of atoms is still shown.

The molecular formula does not provide information about the structural arrangement of atoms. It only shows the number of each type of atom present. Looking at a formula, it can be seen that there can be many arrangements. Many previous GAMSAT questions have asked candidates to determine the number of different arrangements (constitutional isomers) that can be produced from a certain molecular formula.

Bond-line structures are simple and easy to read. They are drawn in a zigzag-like fashion where the endpoints and corners denote a carbon atom. The hydrogen atoms that are bonded to the carbon are not shown. It is assumed there are enough hydrogen atoms so that each carbon atom has 4 bonds. The end points will have 3 hydrogen atoms.

 3D Bond-Line Structures

Wedges represent a group coming out of the page (towards you), and a dash represents a group going behind the page (away from you).

Identifying Lone Pairs of Electrons

There are several patterns that must be recognised for oxygen and nitrogen: 

Oxygen

  • A positive charge on the oxygen atom indicates 3 bonds and one lone pair of electrons; a negative charge on the oxygen atom indicates one bond and three lone pairs. No charge indicates two bonds and two lone pairs.

Nitrogen

  • A positive charge indicates 4 bonds and no lone pairs of electrons; a negative charge indicates two bonds and two lone pairs. No charge indicates three bonds and one lone pair.

Resonance

Resonance structures are used to show the spread of positive charge. They show a combination of different structures in a linear fashion:

In terms of the GAMSAT, questions usually arise that require the candidate to identify the most significant resonance structures out of several for a certain compound. There are rules that can be used to determine the significance of resonance structures:

  1. Structures with minimal charges are more significant than structures with several charges.
  2. Structures that have a full octet of electrons on their atoms are more significant than those that do not have a full octet.
  3. If two carbon atoms in a structure have opposite charges, this structure is generally insignificant.

In summary, look for the structure that has minimal charges, a full octet of atoms, and does not show carbon atoms with opposing charges.

Hybrid Orbitals

The concept of hybrid orbitals tends to confuse many students. For the purpose of the GAMSAT, detailed information is not necessary. Previous GAMSAT questions have asked to choose the compound that contains an sp2 hybridised carbon—easy marks!

The following information is sufficient to tackle questions related to hybrid orbitals:

  • An sp3 orbital carbon will be connected to 4 atoms/groups. The angle between atoms/groups is 109.5 degrees.
  • An sp2 orbital carbon will be connected to 3 atoms/groups. The angle between atoms/groups is 120 degrees.
  • An sp orbital carbon will be connected to 2 atoms/groups. The angle between atoms/groups is 180 degrees.

GAMSAT General Chemistry Syllabus

It is important that students are familiar with the GAMSAT General Chemistry Syllabus so they can focus their General Chemistry study to the most important concepts. Once students are familiar with the GAMSAT General Chemistry Syllabus, they can more effectively focus their study when going through hundreds of pages from General Chemistry textbooks.

Our team at AceGAMSAT have created The General Chemistry Bible, which is a GAMSAT study guide containing content on all relevant topics for the GAMSAT. So if you want to find the easiest way to learn all required General Chemistry content then The General Chemistry Bible is for you.

GAMSAT General Chemistry SyllabusClick Here To Download!

GAMSAT General Chemistry Syllabus

For the students that are willing to do their own research, here is the GAMSAT General Chemistry Syllabus that can be use to direct study and research.

Atoms and Molecules
Atoms

Elements
The Periodic Table
Ions
Molecules
Naming Inorganic Compounds
Chemical Reactions and Equations
Types of Chemical Reactions
Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions
Oxidising vs Reducing Agents

GASES
Gases

Kinetic molecular theory

Kinetics and chemical equilibrium
The collision theory

Equations for reaction rates
Determining the rate law by experiment
Reaction orders
Rates of reversible reactions
Catalysis
Equilibrium
The reaction quotient
Le Chatelier’s principle

Thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamic functions
Internal energy
Temperature
Pressure
Enthalpy
Entropy
Gibbs Free Energy

Solutions
Units of Concentration

Vapor Pressure
Solubility
Phase Diagrams

Acids and Bases
Definitions

Equilibrium constants for acid-base reactions
Logarithms
Titrations
Buffers

Electrochemistry
Oxidation-reduction

Potentials
Galvanic cells
Electrolytic cell

GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus

GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus

It is crucial that students are familiar with the GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus so they can direct their Organic Chemistry study to the most important concepts. Once students are familiar with the GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus they can quickly find the relevant information to learn when going through hundreds of pages from Organic Chemistry textbooks.

Our team at AceGAMSAT have created The Organic Chemistry Bible, which is a GAMSAT study guide containing content on all relevant topics for the GAMSAT. So if you want to find the easiest way to learn all required Organic Chemistry content then The Organic Chemistry Bible is for you.

GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus

Download The Organic Chemistry Bible Now!

For the students that are willing to do their own research, here is the GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus that can be use to direct your study and research.

GAMSAT Organic Chemistry Syllabus

Basic and Common Functional

Organic Chemistry Basics

Molecular Representations
3D Bond-Line Structures
Identifying Lone Pairs of Electrons Resonance
Hybrid Orbitals

Alkanes
Naming alkanes
Naming Substituents
Constitutional Isomers of Alkanes
Newman Projections
Cyclohexane and Chair Conformations

Stereochemistry
Isomerism
Important Concepts in Stereoisomerism
Designating R and S
Relationships between Enantiomers and Diastereomers
Meso Compounds
Fischer Projections

Substitution Reactions
Alkyl Halides
The SN2 Mechanism
The SN1 Mechanism

Elimination reactions: Structure and Preparation of Alkenes
Nomenclature of Alkenes
Stereoisomerism in Alkenes
Elimination Reactions
E2 Reactions
E1 Reactions

Addition Reactions
Hydrohalogenation
Hydration
Hydrogenation
Halogenation

Alkynes

Radical Reactions

Alcohols and Phenols
Physical Properties of Alcohols
Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols
Preparation of Alcohols using Grignard Reagents

Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Aromatic Rings
Nomenclature of Aromatic Rings

Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Sulfonation
Nitration
Activating Groups
Deactivating Groups

Aldehydes and Ketones
Introduction
Nomenclature of Aldehydes
Nomenclature of Ketones
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Important Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature
Structure of Carboxylic Acids
Acidity of Carboxylic acids
Preparation of Carboxylic acids
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

Amines
Classification
Nomenclature
Properties of Amines
Preparation of Amines
Important Reactions of Amines

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
Introduction
Structure and Properties of Amino Acids
Acid-Base Properties
Peptide Synthesis
Protein Structure
Protein Function

Final Words: If you would like know learn GAMSAT Tips for each section of the Exam Click Below:
==> GAMSAT Tips

GAMSAT Biology Syllabus

It is important that students are familiar with the GAMSAT Biology Syllabus in order to direct their Biology study to the most crucial concepts. Once students know the GAMSAT Biology Syllabus they can quickly find the relevant information to learn when going through thousands of pages from Biology textbooks.

Our team at AceGAMSAT have created The Biology Bible, which is a GAMSAT study guide containing content on all relevant topics for the GAMSAT. So if you want to find the easiest way to learn all required physics content then The Biology Bible is for you.

GAMSAT Biology Syllabus

Click To Download The Biology Bible Now!

GAMSAT Biology Syllabus

Macromolecules
Carbohydrates

Nucleic acids
Proteins
Lipids

The Cell
Cell theory

Cell size
Visualisation of cells
Cell structure
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Endomembrane system
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Cytoskeleton
Cell Movement
Fungi
Virus

The Cell Membrane
Structure

Phospholipids
Passive transport
Active transport
Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Energy, Metabolism and Respiration
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Cellular metabolism
Glycolysis
Aerobic Respiration
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Enzymes

Mitosis and the Cell cycle
Binary Fission
Eukaryotic cell cycle
Interphase
M Phase

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
Stages of Meiosis

Meiosis VS Mitosis

Genetics
Overview

Mendel’s first law: The Law of Segregation
Incomplete dominance
Codominance
Punnett Squares
Mendel’s second law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Male VS Female Chromosomes

The Nervous System
Resting Potential
Action Potential
The Synapse
Types of Neurons
Divisions of the Nervous System
The Eye
The Ear
The Nose and Mouth

The Endocrine System
Chemistry of Hormones

Hormones in Detail

Reproduction
Male reproductive System
Female Reproductive System

The Digestive and Excretory System
Mouth and Esophagus
The Stomach
The Small Intestine
The Pancreas
The Liver and Gall Bladder
The Large Intestine
Absorption
The Kidney

The Cardiovascular System
Anatomy of the cardiovascular system
Blood Vessels
The Blood

The Respiratory System

The Lymphatic System

The Immune System

Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle

Bone

Cartilage

Joints

Skin

Homeostasis

Final words:
If you would like to check out our video ‘How To Study For GAMSAT’ – Click the link below:
How To Study For GAMSAT

GAMSAT Physics Syllabus

It is important that students are familiar with the GAMSAT Physics Syllabus in order to direct their physics study to the most important concepts. Once students know the GAMSAT Physics Syllabus they can quickly find the relevant information to learn when going through hundreds of pages from physics textbooks.

Our team at AceGAMSAT have created The Physics Bible, which is a GAMSAT study guide containing content on all relevant topics for the GAMSAT. So if you want to find the easiest way to learn all required physics content then The Physics Bible is for you.

GAMSAT Physics SyllabusClick To Download The Physics Bible Now!

For the students that want to go and do their own research, here is the GAMSAT Physics Syllabus that you can use to direct your study and research.

GAMSAT Physics Syllabus

Translational motion
Scalars and vectors
Adding and subtracting vectors
Resolution of vectors and trigonometric functions
Distance and displacement
Speed and velocity
Acceleration
Uniform accelerated motion

Force, Motion, and gravitation
Mass, weight, center of mass

Newton’s first law
Newton’s second law
Newton’s third law
Gravitation
Special right triangles
Free fall motion
Projectile motion
Friction
Inclined planes
Circular motion and centripetal force
Tension
Pulley systems

Equilibrium
Translational and rotational motion

Momentum and collisions             

Energy and work
Energy

Work
Energy conservation
Power

Fluids and solids
Density

Specific gravity
Pressure
Buoyancy and archimedes principle
Fluids in motion
Fluid viscosity and determination of flow
Surface tension
Solids

Wave characteristics and periodic motion
Transverse and longitudinal mechanical waves

Mathematical representation of a wave
Superposition of waves, phase, interface
Resonance
Standing waves
Harmonics
Periodic motion

Sound
Production of sound

Intensity and pitch
Beats
Doppler effect

Electrostatistics
Charge, conductors, insulators

Coulomb’s law, electric force
Electric field, electric field lines
Potential energy
Equipotential lines and electric dipoles

Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism

Electromagnetic spectrum

Electricity: electric circuits
Current

Ohm’s law
Resistance and resistivity
Resistance in circuits
Batteries and electromotive force
Kirchoff’s laws
Capacitors and dielectrics
Power

Light and optics
Visual Spectrum and polarisation

Images
Mirrors
Refraction, dispersion, Snell’s law
Lenses

Atomic and nuclear structure
Protons, neutrons, electrons
Isotopes, atomic number, atomic weight
Fission and fusion
Radioactivity
Nuclear reactions and radioactive decay
Half-life

 

GAMSAT Essay Topics

Gamsat essay topics

So, we will now examine common GAMSAT Essay Topics to expect in the GAMSAT Exam.

GAMSAT Essay Topics

Task A of the GAMSAT is targeted to be the argumentative essay. The quotes that students receive are usually socially or philosophically based.

Common topics that students could expect in the GAMSAT include:

– Freedom

– Crime

– Punishment

– Science

– Technology

– Poverty

– Wealth

Task B of the GAMSAT is targeted to be the reflective essay. The quotes that students receive usually have a personal theme to allow students to relate the themes with their own experiences in life.

Common topics that students could expect in the GAMSAT include:

– Love

– Beauty

– Conformity

– Originality

– Humour

– Suffering

– Youth

– Ageing

We will now outline some quick tips for writing your GAMSAT Essay.

  1. It is highly recommended that students write about these GAMSAT Essay Topics. Students should find quotes that relate to these themes and write as many essays as possible about these. Then when students are in the actual exam they will already have so many examples in mind for each theme to back up their essays – This will greatly improve your timing in the essay!
  2. Students should write practice essays for each of these themes and have them looked at by a professional or a friend who has went exceptionally well in the GAMSAT
  3. When practicing essay writing students should work under timed conditions and try to simulate the actual exam environment as much as possible. Find a quote place and sit down at a desk. Students need to actually write the essays out on lined paper – just like they will need to do in the actual GAMSAT exam. This is also beneficial as it will train the writing muscles to copy with 1 hour of continuous writing in section 2.

On a final note I would like to share 2 valuable resources:

  1. ‘The Meaning of Things’ by AC Grayling is a great book that covers common themes in life. These common themes are similar to the GAMSAT Essay Topics. It is highly recommended that students get their hands on this book.
  2. If students need some quotes to start their writing they can download AceGAMSAT’s free set of GAMSAT Essay Questions.

    Click here for GAMSAT Essay Questions – http://www.acegamsat.com/gamsat-practice-essay-questions/

 

Momentum And Collisions for GAMSAT

Momentum and collision problems commonly arise in the exam. We will now examine momentum and collisions for GAMSAT and overview the required content.
Momentum And Collisions for GAMSAT
Students should know that Momentum is a vector quantity and is a measure of a moving object’s tendency to continue along its present path. The momentum of an object is calculated by multiplying its mass by its velocity. If an object’s mass or velocity is increased, its momentum is increased. A higher momentum of an object corresponds to an increased difficulty in changing its path.

The following is the equation used to calculate momentum.
M = mV

M: momentum
m: mass
V: velocity

The units for momentum are kg m/s. When approaching momentum problems students should remember that the momentum of an isolated system is always conserved.

Knowledge about collision is crucial, as problems involving collisions have shown up in many previous GAMSAT exams. A collision occurs when two bodies collide, in which each exerts a force upon the other, causing the exchange of energy or momentum. For the GAMSAT, students should be aware of the two types of collisions and their characteristics – elastic and non-elastic collisions.

Elastic collisions
– Momentum and kinetic energy are conserved in elastic collisions.
– Objects bounce off each other e.g. collision of rubber balls and collision of gas molecules.

Inelastic collisions
– Momentum is conserved, and kinetic energy is lost as heat or sound in inelastic collisions.
– Objects stick together upon collision e.g. collision between truck and car becoming stuck together.

When two isolated objects collide momentum is always conserved. We use the following equation in problems that involve the collision of isolated objects.

m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f

This equation should be memorised as ACER may test a students ability to know and manipulate this equation in order to choose the correct answer from a given set of 4 options.

On a final note,

If you are looking to learn GAMSAT Tips, you should check out this post now.. Just click the link below.
==> GAMSAT Tips